Our Services
Cataract Services
The precision and refinement of today’s modern Day Care Eye Surgeries including Phacoemulsification surgeries for Cataract Removal enables us to maximize results in treating every patient’s unique eye problem.

What is Cataract?

A cataract is the clouding of the lens of our eye and is a natural part of the ageing process. There is no Medication, Drops or Diet available that can prevent or slow down cataract formation. Surgical removal is the only known effective cure for cataract. After Cataract Surgery Intra Ocular Lens (IOL) is implanted through the opening created and placed inside the eye in place of the natural lens that has been removed.

What are the causes?

What are the symptoms of cataracts?





What are the different types of cataract surgery?

Glaucoma Services
A cataract is the clouding of the lens of our eye and is a natural part of the ageing process.

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness, is responsible for fifteen percent of world blindness. It is a family of ocular diseases characterized by progressive damage to the optic nerve, which is the part of the eye that carries the images we see to the brain.

Often called the “sneak thief of sight” most forms of glaucoma do not produce symptoms until the optic nerve is already severely damaged. But if diagnosed early, the disease can be controlled and permanent vision loss can be prevented.

Key points to remember about Glaucoma :

  • Glaucoma generally has no signs or symptoms until serious loss of vision has occurred
  • If you have a family history of Glaucoma you are at a higher risk and hence need a regular eye check up. Everyone, from babies to senior citizens, is at a risk of developing this disease.
  • The best way to protect the damage is early diagnosis, proper treatment and regular follow ups.
  • You and your doctor will need to become partners and work together to control your condition and prevent it from advancing


A refractive error is a very common eye disorder. It occurs when the eye cannot clearly focus on images. The result of refractive errors is blurred vision, which sometimes is so severe that it causes visual impairment. Millions of People today including the athletes, businessman and neighbour next door are choosing Laser Vision Correction to correct nearshightness, farsightness & Astigmatism. It is a new form of freedom to see & share the wonders of the world.

Millions of People today including the athletes, businessman and neighbour next door are choosing Laser Vision Correction to correct nearshightness, farsightness & Astigmatism. It is a new form of freedom to see & share the wonders of the world.

A Few Of The International Personalities That Have Undergone LASIK Treatment are

Cricketer: Naseer Hussain, Wasim Jaffer, Paul Colloingwood,

Golfer : Tiger Woods

Tennis Player: Mary Pierce, Jennifer Capriati

Actors: Nicole Kidman, Singer: Elton John

If they can, Why Can’t you?

We offer Free LASIK Evaluation to know your eligibility to undergo LASIK Surgery . Includes : Auto Refraction, Refraction , Topography, Pachymetry

Retina & Uveitis

If you have Diabetes, you need to pay special attention to your EYES before it is too late. Failing vision could be the first sign of damage being caused to your vital organs due to diabetes.

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Patients with diabetes are more likely to develop eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma, but the disease’s affect on the retina is the main threat to vision. Most patients develop diabetic changes in the retina after approximately 5-20 years. The effect of diabetes on the eye is called diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in young and middle-aged adults today. The longer a person has diabetes, the greater their chance of developing diabetic retinopathy. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:

  • Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR)
  • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)
  • NPDR, also known as background retinopathy, is an early stage of diabetic retinopathy and occurs when the tiny blood vessels of the retina are damaged and begin to bleed or leak fluid into the retina resulting in swelling (diabetic macular edema) and the formation of deposits known as exudates. Many people with diabetes develop mild NPDR often without any visual symptoms.

    PDR carries the greatest risk of loss of vision and typically develops in eyes with advanced NPDR. PDR occurs when blood vessels on the retina or optic nerve become blocked consequently starving the retina of necessary nutrients. . New, fragile, vessels develop as the circulatory system attempts to maintain adequate oxygen levels within the retina. This is called neovascularization. Unfortunately, these delicate vessels hemorrhage easily. Blood may leak into the retina and vitreous, causing spots or floaters, along with decreased vision.

    PDR may lead to any one of the following:

    • Vitreous hemorrhage – proliferating retinal blood vessels grow into the vitreous cavity and break down. Both the hemorrhaging and resultant scar tissue may interfere with vision.
    • Traditional retinal detachment – scar tissue in the vitreous and on the retina cause the retina to detach.
    • Tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment – scar tissue creates a hole or tear in the retina causing it to detach.
    • Neovascular glaucoma – abnormal blood vessel growth on the iris blocks the flow of fluid out of the eye causing the pressure to increase and damaging the optic nerve.

    What are the symptoms of diabetic Retinopathy?

    Generally, people with mild NPDR do not have any visual loss. A dilated eye exam is the only way to detect changes inside the eye before loss of vision begins. People with diabetes should have an eye examination at least once a year. More frequent exams may be necessary after diabetic retinopathy is diagnosed.

    People with PDR experience a broader range of symptoms. They may:

    • See dark floaters.
    • Experience loss of central or peripheral vision
    • Experience visual distortions or blurriness
    • Experience temporary or permanent vision loss

    How is diabetic retinopathy diagnosed?

    Diabetic Retinopathy is diagnosed by :

    • Indirect OPhthalmology : Dilated retinal examination : dilating the pupil and looking inside the eye with an ophthalmoscope. If an ophthalmologist discovers diabetic retinopathy, he or she may wish to order color photographs of the retina through a test called fluorescein angiography.
    • FUNDUS FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY (FFA) : During this test, a dye is injected into the arm and quickly travels throughout the blood system. Once the dye reaches the blood vessels of the retina, a photograph is taken of the eye. The dye allows the ophthalmologist to detect damaged blood vessels that are leaking dye.
    • Retinal Colour photography (with Imagenet)
    • Optical coherence tomography O.C.T Macula → For High resolution cross sectional images of eye/retina
    • B Scan → To Detect Retinal Detachment and Vitreous hemorrhag

    Can diabetic retinopathy be prevented?

    The most effective overall strategy for diabetic retinopathy is to prevent it as much as possible. Researchers have found that diabetic patients who are able to maintain appropriate blood sugar levels have fewer eye problems than those with poor control. Diet and exercise play important roles in the overall health of those with diabetes

    Diabetics can also greatly reduce the possibilities of eye complications by scheduling routine examinations with an Ophthalmologist. Many problems can be treated with much greater success when caught early.

    If you have Diabetes make sure that you get a Dilated Retinal Examination at least once a year to prevent Vision Loss.

    Early detection of Diabetic Retinopathy is the best protection against Loss of VisionBetter control of blood sugar levels slows the progressive of the disease and lowers the risk of vision loss.

    What are the current treatment options for a person with diabetic retinopathy?

    Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy is treated in many ways depending on the stage of the disease and the specific problem that requires attention. The retinal surgeon relies on several tests to monitor the progression of the disease and to make decisions for the appropriate treatment. These include: fluorescein angiography, retinal photography, and ultrasound imaging of the eye.

    1. Zeiss Green Laser For PRP / Macualr Grid / Barrage etc

    Patients with diabetes are at greater risk of developing retinal tears and detachment. Tears are often sealed with laser surgery. Retinal detachment requires surgical treatment to reattach the retina to the back of the eye. The prognosis for visual recovery is dependent on the severity of the detachment.

    2. Vitrectomy For Posterior Capsule

    Vitrectomy is commonly needed for diabetic patients who suffer a vitreous hemorrhage (bleeding in the gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye). During a vitrectomy, the retina surgeon carefully removes blood and vitreous from the eye, and replaces it with clear salt solution (saline). At the same time, the surgeon may also gently cut strands of vitreous attached to the retina that create traction and could lead to retinal detachment or tears.

    Advised to patients for conditions like Rent, / Vitreous Hemorrhage / Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Retinal Detachment etc.

    • Slit lamp Delivery system
    • Indirect OPhthalmology → To evaluate Retina
    • F.F.A → For Angiography of Retina
    • Retinal Colour Photography → with Imagenet
    • O.C.T Macula → For High resolution cross sectional images of eye/retina
    • B Scan → To Detect Retinal Detachment and Vitreous hemorrhage
    • Treatment:

    • Laser Treatment → * Zeiss Green Laser * Retinal Laser for PRP
    • Intravitreal Injections
    • Vitrectomy → for different kinds of Retina Surgeries



The cornea is the clear outermost layer of the eye. It covers the pupil, iris, and anterior chamber. The cornea’s main function is to refract light. The cornea is composed of proteins and cells. It does not have blood vessels, unlike most of the tissues


1. It helps to shield the rest of the eye from germs, dust, and other harmful matter. The cornea shares this protective task with the eyelids, the eye socket, tears, and the sclera, or white part of the eye.

2. The cornea acts as the eye’s outermost lens. It functions like a window that controls and focuses the entry of light into the eye. The cornea contributes between 65-75 percent of the eye’s total focusing power.


Most common oculoplasty disorders are :

  • Ptosis ie low or drooping upper lids
  • Entropion or Inward turning of lids
  • Ectropion or Outward turning of lids
  • Eye Bags ie puffy upper or lower lids

Correction of all these disorders requires surgery and our institute is fully equipped to perform all the above surgeries.

Ptosis ie low or drooping upper lids :

Ptosis is a condition whereby the natural position of the upper eyelid is droopy or sagging and limits a person’s field of vision. Ptosis caused by injury to the muscle, congenital defect, muscle disorders, nerve disorders, or aging can obstruct vision and/or create a tired or aged appearance. Correcting this problem involves surgery to repair the muscle and support the eyelid

Ectropion or Outward turning of lids

Ectropion is the medical term used to describe sagging and outward turning of the lower eyelid and eyelashes. The margin of the eyelid and the eyelashes revert (turn out) . This rubbing can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of the eyelid, mucous discharge and irritation of the eye.

Entropion or Inward turning of lids

Entropion is the medical term used to describe sagging and outward turning of the lower eyelid and eyelashes. The margin of the eyelid and the eyelashes invert (turn in) . This rubbing can lead to excessive tearing, crusting of the eyelid, mucous discharge and irritation of the eye

Eye Bags ie puffy upper or lower lids

  • Eyelids (and your eyes) are, perhaps, what other people notice first.
  • Eyelid surgery to improve the appearance of the eyelids is often called ‘eyelift’ or ‘blepharoplasty’.
  • As we age, your eyelids (both upper and lower) may become ‘droopy’ or ‘baggy’. The eyelid skin stretches and muscle tone weakens
  • In addition, your eyebrows may also droop.
  • Your droopy upper eyelids and droopy brows may give you the appearance of being sleepy, tired and aging prematurely
  • In addition, this sagging, may lead to brow/eyelid strain Excess skin can hang over the eyelid and interfere with vision
  • This surgery can be performed on both the UPPER and on the LOWER eyelids.

Children Disease

Pediatric ophthalmologists focus on the development of the visual system and the various diseases that disrupt visual development in children. Pediatric
ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified to perform
complex eye surgery as well as to manage children’s eye problems using glasses and medications. Many ophthalmologists and other physicians refer pediatric
patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and management of ocular problems due to children’s unique needs. In addition to children with
obvious vision problems, children with head turns, head tilts, squinting of the eyes, or preferred head postures (torticollis) are typically referred to a
pediatric ophthalmologist for evaluation. Pediatric ophthalmologists typically also manage adults with eye movement disorders (such as nystagmus or
strabismus) due to their familiarity with strabismus conditions.

  • Infections (conjunctivitis).
  • Strabismus
    is a misalignment of the eyes that affects 2-4% of the population; it is often associated with amblyopia. The inward turning gaze commonly referred
    to as “crossed-eyes” is an example of strabismus. The term strabismus applies to other types of misalignments, including an upward, downward, or
    outward turning eye
  • Amblyopia (aka lazy eye)
    occurs when the vision of one eye is significantly better than the other eye, and the brain begins to rely on the better eye and ignore the weaker
    one. Amblyopia affects 4% of the population and is clinically diagnosed when the refractive error of one eye is more than 1.5 diopters different
    than the other eye. The management of amblyopia involves correcting of significant refractive errors and using techniques that encourage the brain
    to pay attention to the weaker eye such as patching the stronger eye.(occlusion therapy)
  • Blocked tear ducts.
  • Ptosis
  • Retinopathy of prematurityli>
  • Nystagmus.
  • Visual inattention
  • Pediatric cataracts.
  • Pediatric glaucoma.
  • Abnormal vision development.
  • Genetic disorders
    often cause eye problems for affected children. Since approximately 30% of genetic syndromes affect the eyes, examination by a pediatric
    ophthalmologist can help with the diagnosis of genetic conditions. Many pediatric ophthalmologists participate with multi-disciplinary medical
    teams that treat children with genetic syndromes..
  • Congenital malformations
    affecting vision or the tear drainage duct system can be evaluated and possibly surgically corrected by a pediatric ophthalmologist..
  • Orbital tumours .
  • Refractive errors such as myopia (near-sightedness) and astigmatism can often
    be corrected with prescriptions for glasses or contacts.
  • Accommodative insufficiency
  • Convergence insufficiency and asthenopia
  • Evaluation of visual issues in education, including dyslexia and attention deficit disorder.

Use of Atropine eye drops in controlling myopia progression

Atropine eye drops are used to retard or slow myopia progression. A decision is made to use atropine in your child when myopia increases rapidly despite your child observing healthy eye habits.

Before starting your child on atropine, please read this information sheet carefully. If you any questions, please do not hesitate to consult your doctor.

Information on myopia and its possible problems

Myopia can develop as early as kindergarten age and can progress rapidly (1,005-1,50D per year) during the primary school years. Progression typically slows down during the teenage years and stabilizes by early adulthood. In Singapore, 10% of kindergarten children, 60% of primary 6 students and 80% of 18 year olds are myopic.

Myopia arises from the excessive growth or elongation of the eyeball. This result in light from distance objects falling out of focus with the eye.

Distance objects become blurred but near objects remain clear, Spectacles, contact lenses and refractive surgery can be used to help achieve good distance vision, however, and they do nothing to correct the primary problem of increased eye ball length.

An eye with high myopia (increased length) is at greater risk of developing potentially blinding conditions such as glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration and retinal detachment later in life.

Treating myopia with atropine

Atropine eye drop is not a new or experimental drug. Eye doctors have been using it for many years in the treatment of a variety of eye conditions found in children such as lazy eye and squint. In fact, atropine has been prescribed for myopia in children since the 1960s.

Higher does atropine

Higher-does (1.0%) atropine has been used to treat myopia at the Singapore National Eye Centre since the 1990s. Studies show that is slows myopia progression by 80% over a 2 years period. Unfortunately, t also has several uncomfortable side-effects.

Higher-does atropine causes the pupil to open wide, allowing more light to enter the eye causing glare. It also causes blurring of near vision by paralyzing the eye muscles used to focus for near.

This glare or blur can last 4-7 days after administration of one drop of 1.0% atropine. If only one eye is treated at any one time, your child should still be able to read, write, and watch TV, or work on the computer with the other eye. However, if both eyes are receiving atropine simultaneously, your child may have difficulty with near work. For these reason, children on higher-does atropine often require photo chromatic or sun-glasses with UV filter, and a progressive or reading add in their glasses.

Other possible side-effects are often mild and not serious e.g. dry eye, eye allergy, dry mouth, palpitations and flushed skin. Such effects are usually temporary and only occur in a minority of children who use atropine.

More severe side-effects such as confusion, high fever, and coma are extremely rare and mostly occur after improper use (e.g. swallowing of the drug resulting in over-dosage or poisoning). To our knowledge, not a single case of serve side effect has been reported in myopic children who were treated with atropine in Singapore.

Low dose atropine

More recently, low-does (0.01%) atropine was shown to be effective in slowing myopia by 50-60% over a 2 year period, and with very little side-effects. The effect of low-dose atropine appears to build over time, being better in the second than first years. As it causes only minimal increases in pupil size, children do not require tinted or progressive add glasses. Children are less likely to have other side-effects like dry eye or allergy.

As such, low-dose atropine is safer and more comfortable eye drop to use than high-dose atropine. However, some myopia progression may still occur, and if this is sill rapid, we many head to discuss if your child needs a higher dose of atropine. Our studies, however, show that 10% of children respond poorly (i.e. myopia continue to progress rapidly) even to higher- dose atropine.

Changing from higher-dose to low dose atropine

Not all children on higher-dose atropine will need to change to low dose, especially if they are already responding to and tolerating higher-dose atropine well. However, if you wish to do so, you will need to discuss this with your doctor, as a gradual change may be needed.

Long-term Risks

The long-term effects of atropine on the eye are not known. Of most concern are:

  • 1. The possible long-term toxic effects of the drug, and
  • 2. The long-term effects of paralysis of focusing for near, and
  • 3. Effect of increased light on the lens and retina which may lead to earlier formation of cataract and retinal dysfunction.

The decision to use atropine is therefore a balance between the known short-term benefits of reduction in myopia progression (thereby decreasing the risk of blinding myopia-related eye problems), and he as yet unknown risk of long-term ocular problem from atropine use. The long-term risks of low-dose atropine, however, are expected to be less than higher-dose atropine.

Regular Eye Check-up

Children on topical atropine treatment should be reviewed by an eye doctor every 3-6 months. This will allow regular monitoring of their myopia progression as well as identification of any side-effects.

What Causes Near-sightedness?

Near-sightedness (Myopia) is the inability to see objects at a distance clearly. In people with myopia, the eyeball is usually slightly longer than normal from front to back. Light rays which make up the images you see, focus in front of, rather than directly on the retina, the light-sensitive part of the eye. When this happens, objects at a distance seem blurry and unclear.

Progressive myopia or near-sightedness is predominantly caused by genetics. Children inherit a tendency to develop the eye condition from their parents, but these days because of increasing use of Near Vision devices by children like mobiles, tablets, and Laptops we are getting children who do not have a family history of myopia.

How Do I Know If My Child Is Nearsighted?

Most often, young children with nearsightedness don’t complain or only complain of difficulties seeing things far away. A nearsighted child may move closer to objects to see clearly. If your child seems to have trouble seeing things at a distance, make an appointment with an eye doctor.

Remember that child’s visual system continues to develop until the age of 8. During this period so problems during this period can lead to permanent visual loss called amblyopia or “lazy eye” if this is not corrected with the appropriate glasses. Routine vision screening is important in pre-school and school children to pick up refractive errors early Children need their vision checked at 6 months, 3 years, and before first grade. This is especially important if there is a family history of progressive nearsightedness or other eye conditions.

Who is likely to develop myopia?

A child is more likely to develop myopia if he/she:


  • 1. has one or both parents who have myopia
  • 1. has one or both parents who have myopia

How Is Near-sightedness Treated In Children?

After a detailed examination with eye drops to check the amount of Myopia, glasses are then prescribed. Regular 6 monthly check-up is important to check if the spectacle power has gone up, remained the same.

Contact Lenses are options for children in their teens, they are mature enough to take care of them.

My child’s spectacle power continues to go up, is there any way of slowing down the increase?

In my training in Singapore and Germany, I did find a beneficial effect of these special eye drops on reducing the progression of problem though the effect could vary between children. Some recent studies suggest that the use of these eye drops combined with bifocals slows the progression of myopia. This of course needs to be discussed with the parents in detail before starting the treatment. Doing eye exercises may also help in these children.

Can Nearsightedness Be Prevented?

It is may not be possible to prevent it. However, there are steps you can take to minimize its effect. Make sure your child is examined early, cut down on computer games, handheld games and make sure your child takes take periods of rest in between periods of reading or writing.

This disorder–a progressive thinning of the cornea–is the most common corneal dystrophy. It is more prevalent in teenagers and adults in their 20s. Keratoconus arises when the middle of the cornea thins and gradually bulges outward, forming a rounded cone shape. This abnormal curvature changes the cornea’s refractive power, producing moderate to severe distortion (astigmatism) and blurriness (nearsightedness) of vision. Keratoconus may also cause swelling and a sight-impairing scarring of the tissue.

Studies indicate that keratoconus stems from one of several possible causes:

  • An inherited corneal abnormality. About seven percent of those with the condition have a family history of keratoconus.
  • An eye injury, i.e., excessive eye rubbing or wearing hard contact lenses for many years.
  • Certain eye diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, retinopathy of prematurity, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis.
  • Systemic diseases, such as Leber’s congenital amaurosis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Down syndrome, and osteogenesisimperfecta.


Keratoconus usually affects both eyes. At first, people can correct their vision with eyeglasses. But as the astigmatism worsens, they must rely on specially fitted contact lenses to reduce the distortion and provide better vision. Although finding a comfortable contact lens can be an extremely frustrating and difficult process, it is crucial because a poorly fitting lens could further damage the cornea and make wearing a contact lens intolerable.


In most cases, the cornea will stabilize after a few years without ever causing severe vision problems. But in about 10 to 20 percent of people with keratoconus, the cornea will eventually become too scarred or will not tolerate a contact lens. If either of these problems occur, a corneal transplant may be needed. This operation is successful in more than 90 percent of those with advanced keratoconus. Several studies have also reported that 80 percent or more of these patients have 20/40 vision or better after the operation.


  • Q: What is Keratoconus ? will I go lose vision due to this ?
  • No, keratoconus is not a blinding condition, although vision is likely to progressively worsen. Keratoconus causes thinning and distortion of the cornea, which is the clear dome at the front of the eye. The cornea normally has a rounded dome-like shape, but in keratoconus the thinned area bulges forward to produce a cone-like protrusion
  • Q: What are the test required for diagnosing Keratoconus?
  • A: At the Centre For Vision Advanced Diagnostic instruments like Topography (Mapping of the Eye) and Pachymetry (Thickness of the Cornea) combined with Clinical Expertise helps us to diagnose Keratoconus early hence preserve vision for the patients. These tests are then given to the doctor to plan for the treatment
  • Q: I’m 15 and have just found out that I have keratoconus. Is the cone very noticeable to other people?
  • A: The corneal changes in keratoconus are so subtle that special instruments and training are required to see them. Except in the most advanced cases, it is virtually impossible for someone other than a doctor to tell that you have keratoconus.
  • Q: Is it possible for keratoconus to simply get better and heal on its own, or is it a permanent condition that can only degenerate?
  • A: Keratoconus either progresses or remains stable: it does not get better.
  • Q: Is my keratoconus going to get worse and how quickly will it change?
  • A: Keratoconus invariably does get worse in the majority of cases, however progression is difficult to predict. In some cases it changes very little from the time it is first diagnosed. In other cases progression occurs rapidly over a relatively short period of time. The younger the patient is when keratoconus first appears, however, the more chance there is that it will progress significantly, particularly during the teenage years. It is very important to control any allergies which affect the eye during this time, so that any eye rubbing can be avoided.
  • Q: Keratoconus has been confirmed in my right eye. Will my left eye be affected also?
  • A: Keratoconus is bilateral (i.e. affects both eyes) in about 97% of all cases. Only about 3% of cases are truly unilateral. A topography or mapping of the cornea by your practitioner will nearly always show some steepening in the unaffected eye at the time of the first diagnosis of keratoconus, even though the vision in this eye at this stage may be unaffected. Frequently one eye will show symptoms before the other, and the degree of severity is normally worse in one eye and often remains this way.
  • Q: Will certain activities, such as sports or long hours in front of the computer, hasten the progression of keratoconus?
  • A: There is no evidence that any physical or visual activity has any affect on the progression of keratoconus. The exception is eye rubbing where the trauma caused by rubbing the eye can damage the cornea which may cause the condition to advance more rapidly.
  • Q: Why is my vision sometimes more than “double”? I only have 2 eyes so where do the other images come from?
  • A: Multiple images can be caused by a disparity between the two eyes or from multiple refractive zones within the optical zone of just one eye. If you see double and it disappears when you close either eye, it is most likely a binocular problem caused by the two eyes not working together. The causes of this are many and some are potentially serious. Mulitple images in one eye occur more frequently in ocular surface diseases like keratoconus or in diseases affecting the lens or iris of the eye. In keratoconus, surface thinning can create multiple optical zones that individually focus the same image to different areas of the retina, thus creating the additional perceived images. Contact lenses usually eliminate most of these problems.
  • Q: What is the difference between keratoconus and “common astigmatism”?
  • A: Astigmatism is a common condition where the curvature of one or more of the optical surfaces of the eye (the cornea and lens surfaces) are more “curved” in one direction than the other. In “regular” astigmatism the maximum and minmum powers of the cornea are aligned at 90 degrees to each other, while in “irregular” astigmatism they do not align. An egg is a good example of a surface with regular astigmatism, whereas an orange (sphere) is a good example of a surface which has no astigmatism. Keratoconus is a degenerative condition where the cornea thins in affected areas. This can lead to astigmatism, often regular at first but becoming increasingly irregular as the condition progresses. It is possible to correct regular astigmatism with glasses or soft contact lenses. However for irregular astigmatism, where the cornea can often have multiple curves (giving multiple focuses), it is impossible to correct these multiple focuses with spectacles or soft contact lenses.
  • Q: What is the best contact lens for keratoconus?
  • A: There is no single lens type or brand that works for every keratoconus patient. In the early stages, conventional soft lenses can work remarkably well. As keratoconus progresses, gas permeable (GP) lenses work best for the majority of patients. In other cases where tolerance of a GP lens is a problem, piggybacking a rigid lens over the top of a soft disposable lens can, in many cases, improve the tolerance dramatically and provide successful contact lens wear. Unfortunately, contact lenses alone may not completely correct your vision. For some patients, spectacles worn over contact lenses or special lens designs may help. In some cases, corneal scarring or other problems may limit vision, and no amount of correction will be completely effective. Surgery may be the best choice when the vision obtained with a contact lens correction is inadequate.
  • Q: What are the surgical treatments for Keratoconus to stabilise and improve vision in Keratoconus patients?
  • A:There are multiple options now to treat Keratoconus At hospital we have the experience of treating over 4000 patients of Keratoconus at different stages of treatments, depending on the severity of the disease we categorize them into different levels of the problem and customize thetreatments. In early cases we do the treatments in 2 stages, first increase strength of the Cornea and second improve vision. We would need to examine the eyes before deciding the line of treatment. At the CENTRE FOR VISION we have the most advanced treatments for Keratoconus, the best treatment option is then customised to the patient. 1. Collagen crosslinking- This helps to increase the strength of the Cornea hence prevents it from becoming worse 2. Speciality contact lens for Keratoconus,- Rose K Lens, Scleral Lens these are special Contact Lens for Keratoconus which helps to improve the vision 3. Intra Corneal Rings – these are special implants inserted into the Cornea that flattens the conical part of the Cornea hence improving vision 4. Toric ICLs – these are additional Lenses inserted permanently into the eye 5. In case of very advanced disease we do Keratoplasty (Cornea Replacement) with a Laser
  • Q: Can I take advantage of different brands of contact lens solutions and eye drops, depending on what’s on sale on line?
  • A: Recently published research has shown significant incompatabilities between newer contact lens materials and some contact lens care products. The result is irritation and increased risk of more serious problems. Clearly, not all care products are the same. You should avoid problems by first checking with your contact lens specialist before switching lens care products.
  • Q: Can I have LASIK?
  • A: No, keratoconus is a corneal thinning condition and LASIK is a corneal thinning procedure. Surgically making a thin cornea thinner will weaken an already weak cornea and speed the progression of keratoconus thereby exacerbating the condition.
  • Q: My lenses become uncomfortable in airplane cabins. What can I do?
  • A: Ideally one would never wear any contact lenses in an airplane cabin because of the reduced oxygen available and the very low humidity. This is certainly not an ideal environment for contact lens wear. Both of these factors invariably lead to dryness, irritation, discomfort and subsequent reduced wearing time. However for the keratoconic patient, leaving the lenses out when flying is often not an option as their uncorrected vision is insufficient for them to manage. Therefore while flying, we recommend frequent (at least hourly) use of contact lens rewetting drops, removal of lenses if sleeping, and removal of the lenses even for short periods to clean and re-wet the lens if this is a possible option. Also, keep your body hydration levels to a maximum by drinking plenty of water and avoiding alcohol and coffee, both of which cause dehydration Most people can successfully manage their condition using special keratoconus contact lenses, however in a small number of cases where the cornea can no longer successfully be fitted with contact lenses, a corneal transplant may be needed.

What are the best options for selecting spectacle frames for children?

As a doctor and a mom, I know how hard it can be to convince your child they need to wear glasses especially if they are worried about being teased at school. But I can assure you there are a variety of ‘cool’ options that will make your child feel comfortable and confident. The glasses will help your child see better, so make sure they like them, and that the glasses are comfortable so you know your child will actually want to wear their new glasses


Here are a few tips to help find the right pair of glasses for your child.

1. Pick the right frame

If your child has a round face you should choose a square-ish pair, for a square face, choose glasses that are round. Allowing your child if old enough to help pick out their glasses helps the child to feel more confident about wearing glasses. Extra enticement may be found in ultra-cool features like photochromic lenses with tints that darken outdoors.

2.Plastic vs. Metal

All children’s frames are made of either plastic or metal.Plastic eyeglasses used to be considered the better choice for children because they are durable, less likely to be bent or broken, lighter and usually less expensive. But now manufacturers are now producing titanium metal frames that incorporate these same features.

3.Make sure the Bridge Fits

Careful Evaluation of the doctor is required to choose the perfect fit in children. Remember for your kids their noses are not fully developed on a daily basis. Evaluate each pair your kids try on to make sure there are not any gaps between the frame and the bridge of the nose and the eyes are centred in the frame. It is important that your child’s glasses stay in place; because kids tend to look right over the tops of the lenses

4. Spring Hinges

can be a worthwhile investment on children’s eyewear. Kids are not always careful when they put on and take off glasses, and the spring hinges can help prevent the need for frequent adjustments and costly repairs. They also come in handy if the child falls asleep with the glasses.

5. Lens Durability

Children’s lenses should be made of polycarbonate or a new material called Trivex, because they are the most impact-resistant, they also are lighter in weight than regular plastic lenses. Ask also for scratch resistant and anti-reflective coating on the lenses for your children so they last longer.

6.The Backup glasses

you may want to purchase a backup pair of glasses, in case the primary pair and lost or broken.

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